Economics study notes

Efficiency is improved if more output is generated without changing inputs, or in other words, the amount of "waste" is reduced. Related problems in insurance are adverse selectionsuch that those at most risk are most likely to insure say reckless driversand moral hazardsuch that insurance results in riskier behaviour say more reckless driving.

These are represented in theoretical and empirical forms as in the neoclassical and endogenous growth models and in growth accounting. Opportunity cost is the economic cost of production: Much-studied factors include the rate of investmentpopulation growthand technological change.

Production is a flow and thus a rate of output per period of time. Markets Economists study trade, production and consumption decisions, such as those that occur in a traditional marketplace.

By construction, each point on the curve shows productive efficiency in maximizing output for given total inputs.

Market equilibrium occurs where quantity supplied equals quantity demanded, the intersection of the supply and demand curves in the figure above. The subject addresses such matters as tax incidence who really pays a particular taxcost-benefit analysis of government programmes, effects on economic efficiency and income distribution of different kinds of spending and taxes, and fiscal politics.

This includes standard analysis of the business cycle in macroeconomics. It may be represented as a table or graph relating price and quantity supplied. The defining features are that people can consume public goods without having to pay for them and that more than one person can consume the good at the same time.

It aggregates the sum of all activity across all markets. In the long runall inputs may be adjusted by management. All determinants are predominantly taken as constant factors of demand and supply.

Among each of these production systems, there may be a corresponding division of labour with different work groups specializing, or correspondingly different types of capital equipment and differentiated land uses.

Here as well, the determinants of supply, such as price of substitutes, cost of production, technology applied and various factors inputs of production are all taken to be constant for a specific time period of evaluation of supply. Scarcity is represented in the figure by people being willing but unable in the aggregate to consume beyond the PPF such as at X and by the negative slope of the curve.

Supply is typically represented as a function relating price and quantity, if other factors are unchanged. Thus, if one more Gun costs units of butter, the opportunity cost of one Gun is Butter. Examples of such price stickiness in particular markets include wage rates in labour markets and posted prices in markets deviating from perfect competition.

For example, air pollution may generate a negative externality, and education may generate a positive externality less crime, etc. Although economists categorize market failures differently, the following categories emerge in the main texts.

It measures what an additional unit of one good costs in units forgone of the other good, an example of a real opportunity cost.

Opportunity cost is the economic cost of production: It aggregates the sum of all activity across all markets.

Public economics

A term for this is "constrained utility maximization" with income and wealth as the constraints on demand. It also studies effects of monetary policy and fiscal policy.

According to Ronald Coasepeople begin to organize their production in firms when the costs of doing business becomes lower than doing it on the market. Each point on the curve shows potential total output for the economy, which is the maximum feasible output of one good, given a feasible output quantity of the other good.

According to theory, this may give a comparative advantage in production of goods that make more intensive use of the relatively more abundant, thus relatively cheaper, input.

Theory and observation set out the conditions such that market prices of outputs and productive inputs select an allocation of factor inputs by comparative advantage, so that relatively low-cost inputs go to producing low-cost outputs. A term for this is "constrained utility maximization" with income and wealth as the constraints on demand.

In the process, aggregate output may increase as a by-product or by design. Financial economics or simply finance describes the allocation of financial resources. Related problems in insurance are adverse selectionsuch that those at most risk are most likely to insure say reckless driversand moral hazardsuch that insurance results in riskier behaviour say more reckless driving.

It also analyses the pricing of financial instruments, the financial structure of companies, the efficiency and fragility of financial markets[51] financial crisesand related government policy or regulation.

economics. Whether you’re studying macroeconomics, microeconomics, or just want to understand how economies work, we can help you make sense of dollars. Economics at Cambridge. Our course provides a sound understanding of core, pure and applied economics.

However, while you study economics in considerable depth in this specialised degree, you employ ideas and techniques from many other disciplines too; including history, sociology, mathematics and statistics, and politics.

Public economics (or economics of the public sector) is the study of government policy through the lens of economic efficiency and equity. At its most basic level, public economics provides a framework for thinking about whether or not the government should participate in economic markets and to what extent it should do so.

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For over a century, the Department of Economics at MIT has played a leading role in economics education, research, and public service. The Economics Department today is a vibrant collection of faculty and students. Price discrimination happens when a firm charges a different price to different groups of consumers for an identical good or service, for reasons not associated with costs of supply.

What are the main aims of price discrimination? What is the difference between price discrimination and product.

Economics study notes
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