More likely is a whole host of risk factors, biological and psychosocial working together to make it more likely that an individual will develop an addiction. Over subsequent trials the number of licks would rise significantly suggesting it has powerful reinforcing properties.
They are effectively self-medicating. It could be that addiction leads to brain damage in these locations.
It seems that the PFC is able to override or moderate our baser instinctive drives that may be triggered by the lower centres of the brain including the limbic system. When downregulation of nAChR receptors occurs in the NAcc it triggers the release of dopamine resulting in a feeling of increased alertness, reduced anxiety and mild euphoria, likened to the effects of heroin or amphetamine.
This is powerful evidence for a genetic component in addiction as it is able to separate out the effects of genetics and environment and provides support for the role of biology.
Smoking a cigarette therefore acts as a powerful form of negative reinforcement. The Board has condensed these into the following: One such gene is the DRD2 gene that codes for D2 dopamine receptors.
Your body will want to maintain and regulate the level of nicotine in the body. Much of the research is also on other species. Enzymes, like receptors come in different variants, determined by our genes. The participants were all polydrug users with heroin being a particular problem.
This downregulation wears off after a certain length of time.
SLC6A is the specific genetic influence which is linked to dopamine. More so than other models we shall consider, it makes most sense to consider the different aspects of behaviourism and how they can be applied to acquisition, maintenance and relapse.
Alcohol and nicotine addicts tend not to be so obvious in this regard, since they are able to combine their addiction with other behaviours in social settings.
Ethics There is a danger that if we attribute addiction to personality that it will be seen simply as a matter of self-control. The craving is too great and relapse occurs.
Recent developments such as vapes and inhalers have helped to remove some of the more unpleasant and damaging effects of carbon monoxide and tar. However, this argument considers a one-way flow of traffic, believing that groups influence our behaviour. The participants were all polydrug users with heroin being a particular problem.
Dopamine levels dropped for these animals. However, once deprived of their fix, salience becomes far more apparent. Certain areas of the PFC appear to have quite specific functions, for example there seems to be areas responsible for inhibiting behaviours that may bring short term reward at the expense of long term losses; which would include most drug-taking habits.
Similarly Tobler et al developed a peer-pressure-resistant training program designed to stop teenagers taking up smoking. Children brought up in families were parents openly smoke and drink will grow up believing these behaviours to be normal and expected.
What the Board expects you to know: Genetics could therefore be seen as the ultimate cause of addiction. Moore found that young male problem gamblers sometimes have unrealistic ideas about their chances of winning and of their ability to influence outcomes However, it can be argued that this study is testing alcoholism and cannot necessarily be generalised to smoking addiction.
It has been downregulated and can no longer be triggered by acetyl choline. If we adopt the argument that individuals are choosing to join groups that take drugs or smoke or drink alcohol then we are affording those people free will.
For example, an enzyme that breaks down nicotine. Melanie ★. This is my attempt at revision notes for the addiction topic. A lot of the material is taken from other notes found on here, but I have added some studies for evaluation of the explanations for different addictions/stages.
PSYA4 - Addiction revision Add addiction spreadsheet Theory of Planned Behaviour Behavioural Attitude Subjective Norm Perceived Behavioural Control. PSYA4 Addiction - latest 1. Addiction! 2. What we have to cover Defining Addiction2.
Models of addictive behaviour (biological,social learning theory, cognitive)3. The DCM uses criteria to identify a dependance on a substance: Tolerance- a much larger dose is needed to fufil the same effect Uncuccessful attempts to reduce or control their addiction The substance is taken over a larger time period and a higher dose than the individual intended The individual.
Addiction Notes Psya4.
Topics: Addiction, Addiction The Tabers medical dictionary defines drug addiction as a compulsive and maladaptive dependence on a drug that produces adverse psychological, physical, economic, social, or legal ramifications(5).
In the U.S., the abuse or misuse of prescription drugs has been identified by the Centers. Mar 30, · Addiction Notes Psya4 Essay Psychology Module 1 Addiction, Research Methods & Schizophrenia Addiction SMOKING 1) BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS This approach suggests that we become addicted to something because doing without the stimulus is very unpleasant.Addiction notes psya4